Panurus biarmicus
Distribution:Mainly confined to reedbeds of East Anglia and along the south coast to Dorset. Elsewhere, a small population exists at Leighton Moss in Lancashire. Good sites include Cley, Hickling and Titchwell in Norfolk, Walberswick and Minsmere in Suffolk and Blacktoft Sands in Yorkshire. A site where where birds can be seen particularly well is Stodmarsh in Kent especially between April-June.

Habitat:Breeds and winters in large reedbeds.

Diet:They feed on isects, insect larvae and seeds.

Turdus merula
Distribution:Found everywhere in gardens and countryside and from coasts to hills, although not on the highest peaks.

Habitat:Their typical habitat is forest, scrub, gardens and parks.

Diet:Insects, worms and berries.

Sylvia atricapilla
Distribution:Found everywhere in the UK except Northern and Western Isles of Scotland.

Habitat:Woodland, parks and gardens with plenty of trees and shrubs. In winter will readily come into gardens.

Diet:Insects, berries, fruit, sunflower hearts, granulated peanuts, suet treats.

Parus caeruleus
Distribution:They can be seen across the whole of the UK.

Habitat:Gardens, heaths, woods, hedges.

Diet:Insects, seeds, suet & nuts

Fringilla montifringilla
Distribution:The Brambling it is a sporadic winter visitor to the UK, arriving in early October and departing for the more northerly breeding grounds by mid-March.

Habitat:Bramblings breed in subarctic birch and willow groves and shrub tundra of the northern boreal and tundra regions.

Diet:Their natural diet is beech mast, seeds and berries, and insects.

Pyrrhula pyrrhula
Distribution:The bullfinch is distributed throughout Britain, but is scarce in the extreme north and west.

Habitat:Found in plantations, woodland, gardens and farmland where it is associated with scrub and untrimmed hedgerows

Diet:Bullfinches usually feed on insects, berries, seeds (e.g. dock, nettle, bramble, ash, birch, honesty).

Corvus corone
Distribution:Carrion crows are common residents of Wales, England and some parts of Scotland.

Habitat:Found almost everywhere, from the centre of cities to upland moorlands, and from woodlands to seashore.

Diet:Omnivorous: for example, seeds, fruit, insects, eggs and chicks of smaller birds, kitchen scraps and occasionally even tadpoles from garden ponds

Corvus corone
Distribution:Common residents of Wales, England, Scotland and Ireland.

Habitat:Chaffinches occur in a wide variety of woodlands and open forests, urban and suburban parks and gardens, and fields with hedgerows.

Diet:Insects and seeds.

Phylloscopus collybita
Distribution:Found throughout the British Isles during the summer except the northern parts of Scotland and some Scottish islands. It is migratory, but it is one of the first passerine birds to return to its breeding areas in the spring and among the last to leave in late autumn. There is an increasing tendency to winter in western Europe well north of the traditional areas, especially in coastal southern England and the mild urban microclimate of London.

Habitat:It is a bird of open woodlands with some taller trees and ground cover for nesting purposes. These trees are typically at least 5 metres high, with undergrowth that is an open, poor to medium mix of grasses, bracken, nettles or similar plants.

Diet:Insects, mainly flies, from more than 50 families, along with other small and medium-sized invertebrates. It will take the eggs and larvae of butterflies and moths, particularly those of the Winter Moth

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax
Distribution:In the UK, the chough is restricted to parts of Cornwall, the north and west of Wales, the Gower Peninsula, the north coast of Northern Ireland and the south-west Scottish Islands.

Habitat:Breeds and winters on coastal cliffs, feeding on grazed grassy areas. Sometimes nests inland in quarries or old buildings.

Diet:Beetles, fly larvae and ants are important, as are the invertebrates found in animal dung, especially that of cattle and sheep.

Periparus ater
Distribution:Found throughout the UK where there are coniferous woodlands. Have been seen as far north as the west Scottish Islands.

Habitat:Woodland, especially conifer woods, parks and gardens.

Diet:Insects, beech mast and conifer seeds are among the Coal Tit's natural diet. In the garden, they prefer black sunflower seeds, sunflower hearts and occasionally suet.

Emberiza calandra
Distribution:Its distribution is curious with the bulk of the population found across southern and eastern England but with small outlying groups as far away as Cornwall, the Outer Hebrides and north-east Scotland.

Habitat:Breeds on farmland, downs and coastal scrub. Winters on arable farmland, often in stubble.

Diet:Seed feed in winter and throught spring summer. Chicks fed on insects.

Loxia curvirostra
Distribution:They are an irruptive species and may be numerous and widespread in some years, less so in others. Established breeding areas include the Scottish Highlands, the North Norfolk coast, Breckland, the New Forest and the Forest of Dean. Also found in Wales and Ireland Where large pine forests are located.

Habitat:Crossbills are found primarily in association with conifer trees that have cones on them.

Diet:As indicated by their crossed bill, the Crossbill is a specialist feeder on conifer seeds, in particular larch, pine and spruce. They will also feed on other seeds, berries and invertebrates.

Cinclus cinclus
Distribution:Dippers can be seen all year round along fast-flowing freshwater streams and rivers of mostly upland areas in western and northern England. Also found in most of Wales, Scotland and Ireland.

Habitat:Dippers are found in suitable freshwater habitats in the highlands of the UK. They inhabit the banks of fast-moving upland rivers with cold, clear waters, though, outside the breeding season, they may visit lake shores and sea coasts.

Diet:The Dipper catches insects, small fish and shrimps from along the bottom of streams.

Prunella modularis
Distribution:The Dunnock occurs throughout the UK and republic of Ireland, where it is a resident, but in the northern part of its range, it is a migratory bird.

Habitat:Inhabits any well vegetated areas with scrub, brambles and hedges. Deciduous woodland, farmland edges, parks and gardens. Keeps largely on the ground and often close to cover.

Diet:Insects, spiders, worms and seeds.

Turdus pilaris
Distribution: A winter visitor in large numbers to the United Kingdom. The first known nest in Britain was in Scotland in 1967. A few pairs have since bred in various English counties but the total British population is still tiny.

Habitat:Best looked for in the countryside, along hedges and in fields. Hawthorn hedges with berries are a favourite feeding area. In late winter grass fields, playing fields and arable fields with nearby trees and hedges are a favourite place.

Diet:Insects, worms and berries.

Regulus ignicapillus
Distribution: Seen mainly in the south and east of the UK.

Habitat:Bushes and scrubby woodland. Mainly coniferous.

Diet:Small insects.

Sylvia borin
Distribution:They are a summer visitor to Britain. The Garden Warbler breeds over most of England and Wales and into Scotland south of the Highlands and in several small pockets of suitable habitat over much of Ireland.

Habitat:Deciduous and mixed woodland and woodland edges, with glades, rides and other open areas. Especially likes coppiced woodland. Sometimes in farmland hedgerows.

Diet:Insects and berries

Regulus regulus
Distribution:Found throughout the UK. The smallest european bird.

Habitat:Shows a strong preference for conifers. Found in conifer and mixed woods and gardens with conifers. Outside breeding season, also found more in deciduous trees.

Diet:Insects and small spiders

Carduelis carduelis
Distribution:Found throughout the UK. Less frequent in the north of Scotland.

Habitat:Anywhere there are scattered bushes and trees, rough ground with thistles and other seeding plants. Likes orchards, parks, gardens, heathland and commons. Less common in upland areas and most numerous in southern England.

Diet:Seeds, especially thistles, teasel and knapweed. Will also come to garden bird feeders.

Locustella naevia
Distribution:A summer visitor found scattered across the UK, although less common in Scotland.

Habitat:Likes areas of scrub, thick grassland, the edges of reedbeds, new forestry plantations and gravel pits with plenty of scattered bushes.


Parus major
Distribution:Found throughout the UK. Absent only from the Northern and Western Isles of Scotland.

Habitat:It is a woodland bird which has readily adapted to man-made habitats to become a familiar garden visitor. It can be quite aggressive at a birdtable, fighting off smaller tits.

Diet:Great tits feed on insects, such as caterpillars and spiders, seeds, like beech mast, and berries.In the garden they will feed from hanging feeders containing nuts and seeds, such as sunflower hearts, or on kitchen scraps from bird tables.

Carduelis chloris
Distribution:Found throughout the UK.

Habitat:Gardens, parks, woodland and farmland.

Diet:The Greenfinch's diet is seeds, buds and berries.

Motacilla cinerea
Distribution:Found over most of the UK, with the exception of the Northern and western isles of Scotland.

Habitat:The Grey Wagtail may choose various types of habitat but all of these must have water present in the form of small streams, water courses, wells and waterfalls.

Diet:Their diet comprises insects, such as midges and ants, which they find alongside rivers, etc. They will also take water snails and tadpoles from shallow water.

Coccothraustes coccothraustes
Distribution:Hawfinches are now mostly restricted to England in the UK, and have declined in many areas. Parts of western England near the Welsh Borders, the Home Counties and the south-east from Hampshire to Kent remain the most likely places to find them.

Habitat:Hawfinches are closely associated with oak-hornbeam high forest and mature beech, ash and elm woods, where a variety of trees and shrubs provide year-round feeding. Mature orchards and parkland are also used.

Diet:Fruits of pine, hornbeam, plum, cherry, hawthorn, laurel, and holly trees.

Delichon urbica
Distribution:House Martins are found across the whole of the UK, with the exception of the Outer Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland. The highest densities occur in East Anglia, parts of S and W Scotland, the West Midlands and Yorkshire.

Habitat:Mostly associated with man, found around towns and villages. Feeds on aerial insects and so is most frequently seen in areas of mixed agriculture, near water and in the vicinity of woodland.

Diet:Insects, seeds and scraps.

Corvus monedula
Distribution:Found all over the Uk except for the Scottish highlands

Habitat:Farmland, woods, cliffs. parks and gardens. Often found on grasssland and pasture. Roosts communally in woodlands.

Diet:Omnivore. Will take worms, insects, seeds, eggs etc.

Passer domesticus
Distribution:Widespread throughout Britain, but has undergone a drastic decline during the last 25 years.

Habitat:Closely associated with permanent human habitations, including farmyards, villages, parks, suburban areas and city centres.

Diet: Mostly grains, wild and domestic; weed seeds; insects and other arthropods during breeding season. Also household scraps.

Garrulus glandarius
Distribution:Found across most of the UK, except northern Scotland. Lives in both deciduous and coniferous woodland, parks and mature gardens.

Habitat:Live in both deciduous and coniferous woodland, parks and mature gardens.

Diet: Jays feed on acorns, beech mast, fruits, insects, small rodents, bats, newts, birds' eggs and young birds. In the garden they will take peanuts and kitchen scraps.

Sylvia curruca
Distribution:Found in England, Wales and S Scotland, but absent from upland areas. The Lesser Whitethroat is a summer visitor, arriving in April/May and leaving towards the end of July.

Habitat:LesserWhitethroatThe is a fairly secretive warbler which lives mature hedgerows and bushy thickets and is best located by its song and calls.

Diet:As with most warblers the diet is formed mainly of invertebrates, such as beetles, flies, caterpillars, and berries in autumn.

Carduelis cannabina
Distribution:While widespread across the UK, there are concentrations along the east coast from Kent to Aberdeenshire but they are scarce in upland regions and north west Scotland.

Habitat:The linnet is associated with lowland farmland and uses weedy fields, hedgerows, heathland, scrub and gorse thickets. It may also inhabit orchards, heathland, saltmarshes, gardens and parks

Diet:Seeds and insects.

Aegithalos caudatus
Distribution:Found across the UK escept for the far north and west of Scotland.

Habitat:They can be seen in woodland, farmland hedgerows, scrubland, parkland and gardens. In winter they form flocks with other tit species.

Diet:They feed mostly on insects and their larvae, and spiders, but also on berries. Increasingly, Long-tailed Tits are feeding from peanut feeders and suet cake in gardens during autumn and winter.

Pica pica
Distribution:Found across England, Wales and N Ireland, but more localised in Scotland, absent from the Highlands.

Habitat:Seen in a range of habitats from lowland farmland to upland moors in open areas with trees or bushes, in woods, parks, gardens and hedgerows.

Diet:Magpies are omnivores living on a diet of insects, cereals (maize), fruit and berries, carrion (road kills), household waste, plants and vertebrates. The most notorious part of their diet is the plundering of the nests of other birds, taking both eggs and chicks.

Poecile palustris
Distribution:Occurs across England and Wales, with a few in southern Scotland. It is most abundant in S Wales and southern and eastern England.

Habitat:Found largely in deciduous woodland, also copses, parks and gardens, but it is quite scarce in urban areas.

Diet:Insects and seeds

Anthus pratensis
Distribution:Found across the UK but commonest in the west and north. In winter it moves south, to more lowland areas and becomes much commoner in the southern half of the UK.

Habitat:Found in open country - upland moors to saltmarshes in summer, more agricultural land and marshes in winter. Will even come to suburban parks and playing fields.

Diet:The diet is mainly invertebrates including flies, spiders, moths and beetles, but also seeds in autumn and winter.

Turdus viscivorus
Distribution:This is a widespread bird in the UK, found almost everywhere except the highest, barest ground, and absent from the northern and western isles of Scotland.

Habitat:It can be seen in woodland, parkland and gardens.

Diet:insects, worms, slugs, and berries, such as yew, rowan, hawthorn and holly.

Luscinia megarhynchos
Distribution:In the UK they breed mostly south of the Severn-Wash line and east from Dorset to Kent. The highest densities are found in the south east: Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Kent and Sussex.

Habitat:From coppiced woodlands to scrub in river valleys and other lowland areas”.


Sitta europaea
Distribution:Central and southern England and Wales, with occasional sightings in Scotland.

Habitat:Mature woods and established parkland.

Diet:Insects, hazel nuts, acorns, beechmast and other nuts and seed. They are increasingly visiting gardens for nuts and seeds.

Motacilla alba
Distribution:They can be found all across the UK, leaving some of the highland and northern areas of Scotland in winter.

Habitat:Best looked for near water and can be found in most habitats, even town centres.

Diet:Pied Wagtails feed predominantly on insects that it finds while searching lawns, fields and verges. The insects are typically flies and caterpillars.

Corvus corax
Distribution:Best looked for in upland areas of south-west England, Wales, the north Pennines and Lake District and much of Scotland.

Habitat:Ravens breed in the mountainous regions, on the coast and in forests.

Diet:The Raven is a ground feeder, feeding on a diverse diet that includes: carrion, mammals, birds and their eggs and insects.

Carduelis cabaret
Distribution:A widespread breeding species in Scotland, northern and eastern England and Wales. It is less common in central, southern and south-west England as a breeding species, but does occur in these places in winter.

Habitat:To be found in birch and alder woods.

Diet:The redpoll feeds on very small seeds, like alders, spruce, and birch. During the breeding season they also feed on insects.

Phoenicurus phoenicurus
Distribution:Redstarts are summer visitors to Britain, arriving in April and leaving in early September. Mainly found in the north and west of the UK, with the greatest concentrations in Wales.

Habitat:To be found mostly in deciduous woods, but also on heaths, parkland, moorland edges, orchards, gardens, stone walls and quarries.

Diet:Mainly insects; also spiders, worms and berries.

Turdus iliacus
Distribution:The Redwing is a small winter visiting thrush, usually arriving in late September and staying until March-April. The Scandinavian birds usually winter in southern Britain and the Icelandic birds in Scotland and Ireland.

Habitat:To be found in open countryside it likes hedges and orchards as well as open, grassy fields. Will come to parks and gardens.

Diet:Soft fruit, especially fallen apples, and plants bearing berries, such as Hawthorn, may attract Redwings in to the garden.

Acrocephalus scirpaceus
Distribution:A summer visitor it can be seen during the months of April to October. Reed warblers are common in the lowlands of central and southern England and Wales, particularly in East Anglia and the south coast.

Habitat:In reedbeds in lowland central and southern England and Wales - it is rarer elsewhere.

Diet:Insects and spiders also small snails; berries in autumn.

Ficedula hypoleuca
Distribution:A summer visitor it can be found mainly to the west of the UK, the valleys and hillsides of Wales but not in N Ireland.

Habitat:Found in mature broad-leaved woodlands and parkland and wooded hillsides.

Diet:Insects, such as caterpillars, flies, bees, beetles, woodlice, millipedes and ants.

Emberiza schoeniclus
Distribution:Reed buntings can be seen all year round all over the UK, moving from northern Scotland southwards during winter.

Habitat:Typically found in wet vegetation but has recently spread into farmland and, in winter, into gardens.

Diet:Seeds and insects.

Turdus torquatus
Distribution:Ring ouzels arrive in March and April and leave again in September.They can be found in upland areas of Scotland, northern England, north west Wales and Dartmoor.

Habitat:Breeds in moorland and mountainous areas especially around rocky cloughs or outcrops.

Diet:The Ring Ouzel is omnivorous, eating a wide range of insects, earthworms, rodents, lizards and berries.

Erithacus rubecula
Distribution:Wide spread throughout the UK.

Habitat:Woodland, hedgerows, parks and gardens.

Diet:Worms, seeds, fruits and insects.

Corvus frugilegus
Distribution:The Rook is one of our most familiar and widespread birds. It is only absent from upland areas and from treeless islands off the west coast of Scotland, though it has been able to find suitable trees to nest on Shetland and on Lewis in the Western Isles.

Habitat:Resident on farmland and in parkland, nesting in mature trees.

Diet:The Rook's diet, like most crows, is diverse and includes insects, worms, carrion and seeds. They will visit bird tables for scraps and fruit.

Riparia riparia
Distribution:Sand Martins are summer visitors and found throughout the UK.

Habitat:Breeds in riverbanks, lakesides and sandpits. Usually seen over water.

Diet:Insects, such as flies and spiders that it catches in flight.

Acrocephalus schoenobaenus
Distribution:A summer visitors and found throughout the UK.

Habitat:The birds occupy a range of wetland habitats: lakes, rivers, reedbeds, sedge fens, marsh dykes, ponds, flooded gravel pits and meres.

Diet:Insects; berries in autumn.

Carduelis spinus
Distribution:Scotland and Wales, where they are fairly common. In winter they are seen more widely across England as well.

Habitat:Breeds in conifers. In winter found in birches and alders, banks of streams and will visit gardens for peanuts.

Diet:Seeds, especially of conifers, alders and birch, and some insects.

Alauda arvensis
Distribution:Found everywhere in the UK.

Habitat:All kinds of open ground, including farmland, moors, salt-marsh, heaths, upland pasture and industrial waste ground.

Diet:The Skylark feeds mainly on seed and grain, but also insects.

Plectrophenax nivalis
Distribution:Best looked for in winter on coastal sites in Scotland and eastern England (as far south as Kent).

Habitat:Breeds on high mountain tops. Can be seen in winters mainly on sandy and shingle coasts, salt marsh and rough coastal fields.

Diet:Seeds and insects.

Turdus philomelos
Distribution:Found everywhere in the UK. A mainly resident bird although northernmost birds are migratory moving south and south-west in winter.

Habitat:Woods, hedgerows, parks and gardens wherever there are bushes and trees.

Diet:Worms, snails and fruit.

Muscicapa striata
Distribution:A summer visitor, the spotted flycatchers can be found throughout the UK, although they are scarce in the far north and west and almost absent from Scottish islands. High densities are found from Devon and Kent as far north as the Dornoch Firth.

Habitat:Best looked for along woodland edges and in parks and gardens.


Sturnus vulgaris
Distribution:Conspicuous and widespread in the UK, occurring everywhere except for the highest parts of the Scottish Highlands. They are most abundant in southern England and are more thinly distributed in upland areas with moorland.

Habitat:Starlings are common in towns, suburbs, and countryside near human settlements.

Diet:Starlings seem to feed on just about anything: insects, worms, snails, berries, fruit, scraps, suet.

Saxicola torquata
Distribution:Can be seen in western and southern parts of the UK, but disperse more widely in winter.

Habitat:Heaths, conifer plantations or coastal sites, especially in southern and western counties.

Diet:Invertebrates, seeds and fruit (eg blackberries)

Hirundo rustica
Distribution:A summer visitor, the swallow can be found throughout the UK,

Habitat:Swallows are found in areas where there is a ready and accessible supply of small insects. They are particularly fond of open pasture with access to water and quiet farm buildings. Large reedbeds in late summer and early autumn

Diet:A range of small invertebrates.

Anthus trivialis
Distribution:Widespread summer visitors to the UK, they occur in particularly high densities in Western uplands.

Habitat:In heathy or grassy areas with scattered trees including young conifer plantations.

Diet:Mainly small invertebrates. Some plant matter, especially berries, in autumn.

Certhia familiaris
Distribution:Found throughout the uk in summer and winter.

Habitat:Woods, parks, large gardens with mature trees. In autumn and winter, it often joins flocks of tits and other small birds.

Diet:Insects and spiders, and some seeds in winter.

Passer montanus
Distribution:Widely but locally distributed in England, Wales and lowland Scotland. Marked decrease in population in recent years.

Habitat:Breeds and winters in woodland, farmland and scrub, nesting in holes in trees or buildings.

Diet:Seeds and insects.

Bombycilla garrulus
Distribution:The Waxwing does not breed in the UK, but is a winter visitor and is usually seen on the east coast from Scotland to East Anglia, but birds move inland in search of food, increasing the chances of seeing one inland.

Habitat:They often show up around supermarkets and retail parks because many car parks are now bordered with rowan or hawthorn bushes and there are plenty of people to notice these approachable birds.

Diet:Berries, particularly rowan and hawthorn, but also cotoneaster and rose.

Oenanthe oenanthe
Distribution:The Wheatear is a summer visitor and passage migrant. Birds breed mainly in western and northern Britain and western Ireland, although smaller numbers do breed in southern and eastern England.

Habitat:Seen in open country, unploughed downland, or a rocky upland moor.

Diet:Insects and larvae.

Saxicola rubetra
Distribution:The Wheatear is a summer visitor which breed in upland areas of northern and western Britain with a few in Ireland.

Habitat:Breeds on rough grassland, heathland, bracken-covered hillsides and young conifer plantations

Diet:Whinchats feed on insects and their larvae, but also seeds and berries. The insects are usually found on the ground but sometimes caught in flight like a flycatcher.

Sylvia communis
Distribution:It is a summer visitor and passage migrant found over most of the UK.

Habitat:Breeds in hedgerows and scrub on farmland, heathland and woodland margins.

Diet:Insects, and berries and fruit in autumn.

Poecile montanus
Distribution:Found mainly in England and Wales, with some in S Scotland.

Habitat:Willow tits are often, found in willow thickets and in damp places, such as the edge of lowland peat bogs, marshes, and around gravel pits.

Diet:Insects, seeds and berries.

Phylloscopus trochilus
Distribution:A summer visitor. Willow warblers are widespread and can be seen in suitable habitat across most of the UK

Habitat:This is a bird of open woodlands with trees and ground cover for nesting, including birch and willow uplands.

Diet:A wide variety of small insects and spiders. Fruit and berries in autumn.

Troglodytes troglodytes
Distribution:Wrens are widespread across Britain including the Hebrides, the Shetlands and St.Kilda.

Habitat:They live in a variety of habitats that provide low cover, including woods, hedgerows, gardens, marsh edges, reed beds, cliffs and rocky islands.

Diet:Wrens eat spiders and insects which they find while hopping and dashing along the ground and probing in crevices with their long thin bill.

Montacilla flava
Distribution:A summer visitor that can be found in central and eastern England, eastern Wales and southern Scotland.

Habitat:Favoured habitat is lowland meadows and wetlands edges.

Diet:Small insects, including flies and beetles.

Emberiza citrinella
Distribution:Found across the UK but are least abundant in the north and west, and absent from some upland areas, such as the Pennines and Highlands of Scotland, as well as some lowland areas, such as the Inner Hebrides and the Orkneys.

Habitat:Farmland with hedges, heaths, bushy commons and young plantations. In winter more on fields with stubble and root crops.

Diet:Small insects and seeds.