HISTORICAL STUFF








AMERICAN PRESIDENTS

George Washington 1789-97
Born: 1732 Died: 1799
Benjamin Harrison1889-93
Born: 1833 Died: 1901
John Adams1797-1801
Born: 1735 Died: 1826
Grover Cleveland1893-97
Born: 1837 Died: 1908
Thomas Jefferson1801-09
Born: 1743 Died: 1826
William McKinley1897-1901
Born: 1843 Died: 1901
James Madison1809-17
Born: 1751 Died: 1836
Theodore Roosevelt 1901-09
Born: 1858 Died: 1919
James Monroe1817-25
Born: 1758 Died: 1831
William H Taft1909-13
Born: 1857 Died: 1930
John Quincy Adams1825-29
Born: 1767 Died: 1848
Woodrow Wilson 1913-21
Born: 1856 Died: 1924
Andrew Jackson1829-37
Born: 1767 Died: 1845
Warren Harding1921-23
Born: 1865 Died: 1923
Martin Van Buren1837-41
Born: 1782 Died: 1862
Calvin Coolidge 1923-29
Born: 1872 Died: 1933
William Henry Harrison1841
Born: 1773 Died: 1841 of pneumonia.
Herbert Hoover1929-33
Born: 1874 Died: 1964
John Tyler1841-45
Born: 1790 Died: 1862
Franklin D Roosevelt1933-45
Born: 1882 Died: 1945
James Polk1845-49
Born: 1795 Died: 1849
Harry Truman1945-53
Born: 1884 Died: 1972
Zachary Taylor1849-50
Born: 1784 Died: 1850 Food poisoning
Dwight Eisenhower1953-61
Born: 1890 Died: 1969
Millard Fillmore1850-53
Born: 1800 Died: 1874
John F.Kennedy1961-63
Born: 1917 Died: 1963. Assassinated
Franklin Pierce1853-57
Born: 1804 Died: 1869
Lyndon B Johnson1963-69
Born: 1908 Died: 1973
James Buchanan1857-61
Born: 1791 1868
Richard Nixon1969-74
Born: 1913 Died: 1994
Abraham Lincoln1861-65
Born: 1809 Died: 1865. Assassinated.
Gerald Ford1974-77
Born: 1913 Died: 2006
Andrew Johnson1865-69
Born: 1808 Died: 1875
Jimmy Carter1977-81
Born: 1924
Ulysses S Grant1869-77
Born: 1822 Died: 1885
Ronald Reagan1981-89
Born: 1911 Died: 2004
Rutherford B. Hayes1877-81
Born: 1822 Died: 1893
George H.W. Bush1989-93
Born: 1924
James Garfield1881
Born: 1831 Died: 1881. Assassinated.
William J. Clinton1993-2001
Born: 1946
Chester Arthur1881-85
Born: 1829 Died: 1886
George W. Bush2001-2009
Born 1946
Grover Cleveland1885-89
Born: 1837 Died: 1908
Barack Obama2009-2012
Born 1961
Barack Obama2012-Incumbent
Born 1961


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British Prime Ministers

Prime Minister
Entered office
Left office
Party
Sir Robert Walpole
4 April 1721
11 February 1742
Whig
The Earl of Wilmington
16 February 1742
2 July 1743
Whig
Henry Pelham
27 August 1743
7 March 1754
Whig
The Duke of Newcastle
16 March 1754
16 November 1756
Whig
The Duke of Devonshire
16 November 1756
25 June 1757
Whig
The Duke of Newcastle
2 July 1757
26 May 1762
Whig
The Earl of Bute
26 May 1762
16 April 1763
Tory
George Grenville
16 April 1763
13 July 1765
Whig
The Marquess of Rockingham
13 July 1765
30 July 1766
Whig
The Earl of Chatham
30 July 1766
14 October 1768
Whig
The Duke of Grafton
14 October 1768
28 January 1770
Whig
Lord North
28 January 1770
22 March 1782
Tory
The Marquess of Rockingham
27 March 1782
1 July 1782
Whig
The Earl of Shelburne
4 July 1782
2 April 1783
Whig
The Duke of Portland
2 April 1783
19 December 1783
Tory
William Pitt the Younger
19 December 1783
14 March 1801
Tory
Henry Addington
17 March 1801
10 May 1804
Tory
William Pitt the Younger
10 May 1804
23 January 1806
Tory
The Lord Grenville
11 February 1806
31 March 1807
Whig
The Duke of Portland
31 March 1807
4 October 1809
Tory
Spencer Perceval
4 October 1809
11 May 1812 >
Tory
The Earl of Liverpool
9 June 1812
10 April 1827
Tory
George Canning
10 April 1827
8 August 1827
Tory
The Viscount Goderich
31 August 1827
22 January 1828
Tory
The Duke of Wellington
22 January 1828
22 November 1830
Tory
The Earl Grey
22 November 1830
16 July 1834
Whig
The Viscount Melbourne
16 July 1834
17 November 1834
Whig
The Duke of Wellington
17 November 1834
9 December 1834
Conservative
Sir Robert Peel
10 December 1834
18 April 1835
Conservative
The Viscount Melbourne
18 April 1835
30 August 1841
Whig
Sir Robert Peel
30 August 1841
30 June 1846
Conservative
Earl Russell
30 June 1846
23 February 1852
Whig
The Earl of Derby
23 February 1852
19 December 1852
Conservative
The Earl of Aberdeen
19 December 1852
6 February 1855
Peelite/ Coalition
The Viscount Palmerston
6 February 1855
20 February 1858
Whig
The Earl of Derby
20 February 1858
12 June 1859
Conservative
The Viscount Palmerston
12 June 1859
18 October 1865
Liberal
The Earl Russell
29 October 1865
28 June 1866
Liberal
The Earl of Derby
28 June 1866
27 February 1868
Conservative
Benjamin Disraeli
27 February 1868
3 December 1868
Conservative
William Ewart Gladstone
3 December 1868
20 February 1874
Liberal
Benjamin Disraeli
20 February 1874
23 April 1880
Conservative
William Ewart Gladstone
23 April 1880
23 June 1885
Liberal
The Marquess of Salisbury
23 June 1885
1 February 1886
Conservative
William Ewart Gladstone
1 February 1886
25 July 1886
Liberal
The Marquess of Salisbury
3 August 1886
15 August 1892
Conservative
William Ewart Gladstone
15 August 1892
5 March 1894
Liberal
The Earl of Rosebery
5 March 1894
25 June 1895
Liberal
The Marquess of Salisbury
25 June 1895
12 July 1902
Conservative
Arthur Balfour
12 July 1902
5 December 1905
Conservative/
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
5 December 1905
7 April 1908
Liberal
Herbert Henry Asquith
7 April 1908
7 December 1916
Liberal
David Lloyd George
7 December 1916
23 October 1922
National Liberal/
Andrew Bonar Law
23 October 1922
22 May 1923
Conservative
Stanley Baldwin
22 May 1923
22 January 1924
Conservative
Ramsay MacDonald
22 January 1924
4 November 1924
Labour
Stanley Baldwin
4 November 1924
5 June 1929
Conservative
Ramsay MacDonald
5 June 1929
24 August 1931
Labour
Ramsay MacDonald
24 August 1931
7 June 1935
National Labour
Stanley Baldwin
7 June 1935
28 May 1937
Conservative
Neville Chamberlain
28 May 1937
10 May 1940
Conservative
Winston Churchill
10 May 1940
23 May 1945
Conservative/Coalition
Winston Churchill
23 May 1945
26 July 1945
Conservative
Clement Attlee
26 July 1945
26 October 1951
Labour
Sir Winston Churchill
26 October 1951
6 April 1955
Conservative
Sir Anthony Eden
6 April 1955
10 January 1957
Conservative
Harold Macmillan
10 January 1957
19 October 1963
Conservative
Sir Alec Douglas-Home
19 October 1963
16 October 1964
Conservative
Harold Wilson
16 October 1964
19 June 1970
Labour
Edward Heath
19 June 1970
4 March 1974
Conservative
Harold Wilson
4 March 1974
5 April 1976
Labour
James Callaghan
5 April 1976
4 May 1979
Labour
Margaret Thatcher
4 May 1979
28 November 1990
Conservative
John Major
28 November 1990
2 May 1997
Conservative
Tony Blair
2 May 1997
27 June 2007
Labour
Gordon Brown
27 June 2007
11 May 2010
Labour
David Camaeon
11 May 2010
Incumbent
Conservative


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BRITISH KINGS & QUEENS

House of Wessex


  • Egbert (802-39)
  • Aethelwulf (839-55)
  • Aethelbald (855-60)
  • Aethelbert (860-6)
  • Aethelred (866-71)
  • Alfred, the Great (871-99)
  • Edward, the Elder (899-925)
  • Athelstan (925-40)
  • Edmund, the Magnificent (940-6)
  • Eadred (946-55)
  • Eadwig (Edwy), All-Fair (955-59)
  • Edgar, the Peaceable (959-75)
  • Edward, the Martyr (975-78)
  • Aethelred, the Unready (978-1016)
  • Edmund, Ironside (1016)

Danish Line


  • Svein, Forkbeard (1014)
  • Canute, the Great (1016-35)
  • Harald, Harefoot (1035-40)
  • Hardicanute (1040-42)

House of Wessex, Restored


  • Edward, the Confessor (1042-66)
  • Harold II (1066)

Norman Line


  • William I, the Conqueror (1066-87)
  • William II, Rufus (1087-1100)
  • Henry I, Beauclerc (1100-35)
  • Stephen (1135-54)
  • Empress Matilda (1141)

Plantagenet, Angevin Line


  • Henry II, Curtmantle (1154-89)
  • Richard I the Lionheart (1189-99)
  • John, Lackland (1199-1216)
  • Henry III (1216-72)
  • Edward I, Longshanks (1272-1307)
  • Edward II (1307-27)
  • Edward III (1327-77)
  • Richard II (1377-99)

Plantagenet, Lancastrian Line


  • Henry IV, Bolingbroke (1399-1413)
  • Henry V (1413-22)
  • Henry VI (1422-61, 1470-1)

Plantagenet, Yorkist Line


  • Edward IV (1461-70, 1471-83)
  • Edward V (1483)
  • Richard III, Crookback (1483-85)

House of Tudor


  • Henry VII, Tudor (1485-1509)
  • Henry VIII (1509-47)
  • Edward VI (1547-53)
  • Lady Jane Grey (1553)
  • Mary I, Tudor (1553-58)
  • Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

House of Stuart


  • James I (1603-25)
  • Charles I (1625-49)

The Commonwealth


  • Oliver Cromwell (1649-58)
  • Richard Cromwell (1658-59)

House of Stuart, Restored


  • Charles II (1660-85)
  • James II (1685-88)

House of Orange and Stuart


  • William III, Mary II (1689-1702)

House of Stuart


  • Anne (1702-14)

House of Brunswick, Hanover Line


  • George I (1714-27)
  • George II (1727-60)
  • George III (1760-1820)
  • George IV (1820-30)
  • William IV (1830-37)
  • Victoria (1837-1901)

House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha


  • Edward VII (1901-10)

House of Windsor


  • George V (1910-36)
  • Edward VIII (1936)
  • George VI (1936-52)
  • Elizabeth II (1952-present)


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FRENCH KINGS & QUEENS

Carolingian Dynasty


  • Charles II the Bald 843-877
  • Louis II the Stammerer 877-879
  • Louis III 879-882, jointly with his brother:
  • Carloman 879-884
  • Charles the Fat 884-887
  • Odo 888-898
  • Charles III the Simple 898-922
  • Robert I 922-923
  • Rudolph 923-936
  • Louis IV 936-954
  • Lothair 954-986
  • V the Indolent 986-987

Capetian Dynasty


  • Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France 987 - 996
  • Robert II the Pious 996 - 1031
  • Henry I 1031 - 1060
  • Philip I 1060 - 1108
  • Louis VI the Fat 1108 - 1137
  • Louis VII the Younger 1137 - 1180
  • Philip II Augustus 1180 - 1223
  • Louis VIII the Lion 1223 - 1226
  • Louis IX (St. Louis) 1226 - 1270
  • Blanche of Castile (regent for Louis IX) 1226 - 1234
  • Philip III the Bold 1271 - 1285
  • Philip IV the Fair 1285 - 1314
  • Louis X the Stubborn 1314 - 1316
  • (Philip, brother of Louis X (served as regent before the birth of John I, and during his short life) 1316)
  • John I the Posthumous 1316
  • Philip V the Tall 1316 - 1322
  • Charles IV the Fair 1322-1328

Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois


  • Main Branch (1328-1498)

  • Philip VI the Fortunate 1328-1350
  • John II the Good 1350-1364
  • Charles V the Wise 1364-1380
  • Charles VI the Well-Beloved or the Mad 1380-1422
  • Louis I of Anjou (regent for Charles VI) 1380-1382
  • Charles VII the Victorious 1422-1461
  • Louis XI 1461-1483
  • Charles VIII the Affable 1483-1498
  • Anne de Beaujeu (regent for Charles VIII) 1483-1484

  • Valois-Orléans Branch (1498-1515)
  • Louis XII, the Father of His People 1498-1515
  • Valois-Angoulême Branch (1515-1589)
  • Francis I 1515-1547
  • II 1547-1559
  • Francis II 1559-1560
  • Charles IX 1560-1574
  • Catherine de Medici (regent for Charles IX) 1560-1563
  • Henry III (King of Poland 1573-1574) 1574-1589

Capetian Dynasty, House of Bourbon


  • Henry IV (King Henry III of Navarre, 1572-1610) 1589-1610
  • Louis XIII the Just 1610-1643
  • de Medici (regent for Louis XIII) 1610-1614
  • Louis XIV the Sun King 1643-1715
  • Anne of Austria (regent for Louis XIV) 1643-1651
  • Louis XV the Well-Beloved 1715-1774
  • Philippe II of Orléans (regent for Louis XV) 1715-1723
  • Louis XVI the Beloved 1774-1792

First Republic (1792-1804)



Bonaparte Dynasty - First Empire (1804-1814)


  • Napoleon I, Emperor (May 18, 1804- April 6, 1814 and again March 20 - June 22, 1815)
  • Marie Louise of Austria (regent for Napoleon I) 1812-1813
  • Napoleon II Emperor (June 22 - July 7, 1815)

Bourbon Dynasty, Restored (1814-1830)


  • Louis XVIII (1814-1824)
  • Charles X (1824-1830)

Bourbon-Orléans, The Monarchy of July (1830-1848)


  • Louis-Philippe the Citizen King (1830-1848)

Second Republic (1848-1852)


  • Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, President of the Republic (1848-1852)

Bonaparte Dynasty, Restored Second Empire (1852-1870)


  • Napoleon III of France, Emperor (1852-1870)

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HENRY VIII

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) King of England. He was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty. He established the independent Church of England, set about the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and the union of England and Wales. He is famous for having been married six times and for wielding the most untrammeled power of any British monarch.
Catherine of Aragon (December 16, 1485 – January 7, 1536; Spanish: Catalina de Aragón) was queen consort of England as Henry VIII of England's first wife. Henry annulled his twenty-four year marriage to her after only one of their six children, Mary I, survived infancy.
Anne Boleyn (also, Bullen), Marquess of Pembroke (1507 – May 19, 1536) was the second wife and queen consort of Henry VIII and mother of Queen Elizabeth I of England.
She is also well known for her premature death, when she was beheaded on charges of adultery and treason.
Queen Jane, neé Jane Seymour (1509 -- 24 October 1537) was the third wife of King Henry VIII of England. She gave him his only male heir, later Edward VI, but she died shortly after giving birth.
Anne of Cleves also known as "The Flanders Mare" (September 22, 1515 – July 16, 1557) was the queen consort of Henry VIII of England from January 6, 1540 to July 9, 1540.
The marriage was annulled on July 9, 1540, on the grounds that it had never been consummated,
Catherine Howard (1520 - February 13, 1542) was the fifth queen consort of Henry VIII of England 1540-1542.
She was charged with adultery and treason and taken to the Tower of London where she was executed on 10 February 1542.
Catherine Parr (1512 – 7 September 1548), also spelled Katharine, was the Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England 1543 - 1547; the last wife of his six. She has a special place in history as the most married queen of England, having had four husbands in all.

Divorced, Beheaded, Died, Divorced, Beheaded, Survived.










Moments in History

  • ANCIANT BRITON
  • THE ROMANS
  • THE DARK AGES
  • 11 th Century AD
  • 12 th Century AD
  • 13 th Century AD
  • 14 th Century AD
  • 15 th Century AD
  • 16 th Century AD
  • 17 th Century AD
  • 18 th Century AD
  • 19 th Century AD
  • 20 th Century AD
  • 21 st Century AD



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    ANCIENT BRITON B C


    c.5000 - Neolithic (new stone age) Period begins; first evidence of farming appears; stone axes, antler combs, pottery in common use..

    c.4000 - Construction of the "Sweet Track" (named for its discoverer, Ray Sweet) begun; many similar raised, wooden walkways were constructed at this time providing a way to traverse the low, boggy, swampy areas in the Somerset Levels, near Glastonbury; earliest-known camps or communities appear (ie. Hembury, Devon).

    c.3500-3000 - First appearance of long barrows and chambered tombs; at Hambledon Hill (Dorset), the primitive burial rite known as "corpse exposure" was practiced, wherein bodies were left in the open air to decompose or be consumed by animals and birds.

    c.3000-2500 - Castlerigg Stone Circle (Cumbria), one of Britain's earliest and most beautiful, begun; Pentre Ifan (Dyfed), a classic example of a chambered tomb, constructed; Bryn Celli Ddu (Anglesey), known as the "mound in the dark grove," begun, one of the finest examples of a "passage grave."

    c.2500 - Bronze Age begins; multi-chambered tombs in use (ie. West Kennet Long Barrow) first appearance of henge "monuments;" construction begun on Silbury Hill, Europe's largest prehistoric, man-made hill (132 ft); "Beaker Folk," identified by the pottery beakers (along with other objects) found in their single burial sites.

    c.2500-1500 - Most stone circles in British Isles erected during this period; pupose of the circles is uncertain, although most experts speculate that they had either astronomical or ritual uses.

    c.2300 - Construction begun on Britain's largest stone circle at Avebury.

    c.2000 - Metal objects are widely manufactured in England about this time, first from copper, then with arsenic and tin added; woven cloth appears in Britain, evidenced by findings of pins and cloth fasteners in graves; construction begun on Stonehenge's inner ring of bluestones.

    c.1800-1200 - Secular control of society passes from priests to those who control the manufacture of metal objects.

    c.1500 - Farms (houses and separate, walled fields) in use on Dartmoor (Devon) and in uplands of Wales; stone circles seem to fall into disuse and decay around this time, perhaps due to a re-orientation of the society's religious attitudes and practices; burial mounds cease to be constructed; burials made near stone circles or in flat cemetaries.

    c.1200-1000 - Emergence of a warrior class who now begins to take a central role in society. Some believe that these people, also known as the Urnfield civilization, are the "proto-Celts."

    c.1100 - Geoffrey of Monmouth suggests that Brutus arrives about this time.

    c.1000 - Earliest hill-top earthworks ("hillforts") begin to appear, also fortified farmsteads; increasing sophistication of arts and crafts, particularly in decorative personal and animal ornamentation.

    c.600 - Iron replaces bronze, Iron Age begins; construction of Old Sarum begun.

    c.500 - Evidence of the spread of Celtic customs and artefacts across Britain; more and varied types of pottery in use, more characteristic decoration of jewelry. There was no known invasion of Britain by the Celts; they probably gradually infiltrated into British society through trade and other contact over a period of several hundred years; Druids, the intellectual class of the Celts (their own word for themselves, meaning "the hidden people"), begin a thousand year floruit.

    c.150 - Metal coinage comes into use; widespread contact with continent.

    c.100 - Flourishing of Carn Euny (Cornwall), an iron age village with interlocking stone court-yard houses; community features a "fogou," an underground chamber used, possibly, for storage or defense.






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    THE ROMANS IN BRITAIN AD


    55 - Julius Caesar's first invasion of Britain.

    54 - Julius Caesar's second invasion of Britain. British forces led, this time, by Cassivellaunus, a capable commander. Despite early Roman advances, British continued to harass the invaders, effectively. A "deal" with the Trinovantes (tribal enemies of Cassivellaunus), and the subsequent desertion of other British tribes, finally guaranteed the Roman victory. Caesar's first two expeditions to Britain were only exploratory in nature, and were never intended to absorb Britain into the Roman sphere, at that time.

    54 BC-43 AD - Roman influence manages to increase in Britain during this time, eventhough Roman troops are absent, as a direct result of trade and other interaction with the continent.

    5 - Rome acknowledges Cymbeline, King of the Catuvellauni, as king of Britain

    43 - Romans, under Aulus Plautius, land at Richborough (Kent) for a full-scale invasion of the island. In the south-east of Britain, Togodumnus and Caratacus have been whipping up anti-Roman feeling and have cut off tribute payments to Rome. Caratacus leads main British resistance to the invasion, but is finally defeated in 51.

    51 - Caratacus, British resistance leader, is captured and taken to Rome.

    61 - Boudicca, queen of the Iceni, led uprising against the Roman occupiers, but is defeated and killed by the Roman governor, Suetonius Paulinus.

    63 - Joseph of Arimathea came to Glastonbury on the first Christian mission to Britain.

    c.75-77 - The Roman conquest of Britain is complete, as Wales is finally subdued; Julius Agricola is imperial governor (to 84)

    122 - Construction of Hadrian's Wall ordered along the northern frontier, for the purpose of hindering incursions of the aggressive tribes there into Britannia.

    167 - At the request of King Lucius, the missionaries, Phagan and Deruvian,were said to have been sent by Pope Eleutherius to convert the Britons to Christianity. This is, perhaps, the most widely believed of the legends of the founding of Christianity in Britain.

    197 - Clodius Albinus, governor of Britain, another claimant to the Imperial throne, is killed by Severus at the battle of Lyon.

    209 - St. Alban, first British martyr, was killed for his faith in one of the few persecutions of Christians ever to take place on the island, during the governorship of Gaius Junius Faustinus Postumianus.

    1789 - Outbreak of the French Revolution.

    287 - Revolt by Carausius, commander of the Roman British fleet, who rules Britain as emperor until murdered by Allectus, a fellow rebel, in 293.

    303 - Diocletian orders a general persecution of the Christians .

    312 - Constantine defeats and kills Maxentius at battle of Milvian Bridge; Constantine realizes Christian God may be a powerful ally and decides to attempt to co-opt him for his own purposes.

    313 - Edict of Toleration proclaimed at Milan, in which Christianity is made legal throughout the empire

    360's - Series of attacks on Britain from the north by the Picts, the Attacotti and the Irish (Scots), requiring the intervention of Roman generals leading special legions.

    369 - Roman general Theodosius drives the Picts and Scots out of Roman Britain

    383 - Magnus Maximus (Macsen Wledig), a Spaniard, was proclaimed Emperor in Britain by the island's Roman garrison. With an army of British volunteers, he quickly conquered Gaul, Spain and Italy.

    388 - Maximus occupied Rome itself. Theodosius, the eastern Emperor, defeated him in battle and beheaded him in July, 388, with many of the remnant of Maximus' troops settling in Armorica. The net result to Britain was the loss of many valuable troops needed for the island's defense (the "first migration").

    396 - The Roman general, Stilicho, acting as regent in the western empire during Honorius' minority, reorganized British defenses decimated by the Magnus Maximus debacle. Began transfer of military authority from Roman commanders to local British chieftains.

    397 - The Roman commander, Stilicho, comes to Britain and repels an attack by Picts, Irish and Saxons

    402 - Events on the continent force Stilicho to recall one of the two British legions to assist with the defense of Italy against Alaric and the Visigoths.

    405 - The British troops, which had been recalled to assist Stilicho, were never returned to Britain as they had to stay in Italy to fight off another, deeper penetration by the barbarian chieftain, Radagaisus.

    406 - In early January, 406, a combined barbarian force (Suevi, Alans, Vandals & Burgundians) swept into central Gaul, severing contact between Rome and Britain.

    407 - In place of the assassinated Marcus, Gratian was elevated "to the purple," but lasted only four months. Constantine III was hailed as the new emperor by Roman garrison in Britian. He proceeded to follow the example of Magnus Maximus by withdrawing the remaining Roman legion, the Second Augusta, and crossing over into Gaul to rally support for his cause. Constantine's departure could be what Nennius called "the end of the Roman Empire in Britain.

    408 - With both Roman legions withdrawn, Britain endures devastating attacks by the Picts, Scots and Saxons.

    410 - Britain gains "independence" from Rome. The Goths, under Alaric, sack Rome.






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    THE DARK AGES


    Emperor Honorius of Rome tells Britain to attend to its own affairs. Zosmius reports Roman officials expelled and native government establishes "independence". Governor Owain Finddu of Glywysing is assassinated in Gwynedd. Irish incursions into Gwynedd, Powys, Garth Madrun, Dyfed & the Gower Peninsula.

    411 - Capture, at Arles, of Constatine, last Emperor of Britain. He was executed at Ravenna soon afterward.

    .420 - Death of Coel Hen, probably the last Roman Dux Brittanniarum. The lands of his office in Northern Britain are divided between his descendants and become petty kingdoms of the "Gwyr y Gogledd".

    423 - Birth of St. Patrick in Banna Venta Burniae, thought to be near Birdoswald.

    425 - Cunedda Wledig and his retinue are moved south from Manau Gododdin to Gwynedd in order to expel the invading Irish.

    434 - St. Patrick is captured by pirates and taken to Ireland as a slave.

    435 - War breaks out between the Irish settlers in Garth Madrun and Powys. King Anlach of Garth Madrun is defeated and forced to send his son, Brychan, as a hostage to the Powysian Court.

    440 - St. Patrick escapes from his captors and returns to Britain.

    440-50 - Period of Civil War and famine in Britain, caused by ruling council's weakness and inability to deal with Pictish invasions.

    446 - Britons (probably the pro-Roman party) appeal to Aetius, Roman governor of Gaul, for military assistance in their struggle against the Picts and the Irish/Scots. No help could be sent, at this time, as Aetius had his hands full with Attila the Hun.

    447 - Second visit of St. Germanus (this time accompanied by Severus, Bishop of Trier) to Britain. Britons, aroused to heroic effort, "inflicted a massacre" on their enemies, the Picts and Irish, and were left in peace, for a brief time. Could this heroic effort have been led, again, by St. Germanus?

    448 - Civil war and plague ravage Britain.

    450 - In the first year of Marcian and Valentinian, Hengest arrives on shores of Britain with "3 keels" of warriors, and are welcomed by Vortigern. This event is known in Latin as the "Adventus Saxonum," the coming of the Saxons.

    452 - Increasing Saxon settlement in Britain. Vortigern marries Hengest's daughter, Rowenna, and supposedly offers the Jutish leader the kingdom of Kent. Hengest invites his son, Octha, from Germany with "16 keels" of warriors, who occupy the northern lands, to defend against the Picts. Picts never heard from, again.

    455 - Prince Vortimer apparently rebels against the pro-Saxon policies of his father, Vortigern, and fights Hengest at the Battle of Crayford. Hengest is victorious and the British army flees back to London.

    456 - St. Patrick leaves Britain once more to evangelise Ireland.

    458 - Saxon uprising in full-swing. Hengest finally conquers Kent, in south-eastern Britain.

    465 - Battle of Wippedsfleet (or Richborough), in which the Britons defeat the Saxons, but with great slaughter on both sides. The latter are confined to the Isle of Thanet and there is a respite from fighting "for a long time.".

    575 - Prince Owein of North Rheged kills King Theodoric of Bernicia at the Battle of Leeming Lane.

    589 - Death of Saint and King Constantine of Dumnonia. Death of St. David, Archbishop of St. Davids.






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    The 11 th Century


    1003 - Sweyn and an army of Norsemen land in England and wreak a terrible vengeance.

    1007 - AEthelred buys two years' peace from the Danes for 36,000 pounds of silver.

    1012 - The Danes sack Canterbury: bought off for 48,000 pounds of silver.

    1013 - Sweyn lands in England and is proclaimed king; AEthelred flees to Normandy .

    1014 - The English recall AEthelred II as King on the death of Sweyn; Canute retreats to Denmark.

    1015 - Canute again invades England; war between Danes and Saxons.

    1016 - Edmund Ironside, son of AEthelred II, King of England: he and Canute divide the kingdom, Canute holds the north and Edmund Wessex; Edmund is assassinated; Canute, King of England. (to 1035)

    1035 - Death of Canute: his possessions are divided; Harold I, Harefoot, becomes King of England. (to 1040)

    1040 - Hardicanute, King of England (to 1042); he dies of drink.

    1042 - Edward the Confessor, son of AEthelred II, King of England (to 1066).

    1052 - Edward the Confessor founds Westminster Abbey, near London.

    1066. September 29---Battle of Hastings. William of Normandy invaded Great Britain. The English King, Harold II was reputedly killed by an arrow throught the eye.

    1067 - Work is begun on building the Tower of London.

    1068 - The Norman Conquest continues until 1069: William subdues the north of England (the "Harrying of the North" ): the region is laid waste

    1070 - Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England; Lanfranc, an Italian lawyer, becomes William's formidable Archbishop of Canterbury. Lanfranc rebuilds Canterbury Cathedral and establishes the primacy of the see of Canterbury over York, but does not enforce clerical celibacy.

    1072 - William invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Herewardthe Wake.

    Domesday Book (also known as the Book of Winchester), was the record of the great survey of England completed in 1086, executed for William the Conqueror. The first full record of who owned what in England. The first CENSUS.

    1087 - William II, Rufus, King of England (to 1100); his elder brother, Robert, is Duke of Normandy

    1099 - Crusaders capture Jerusalem; Godfrey of Bouillon is elected King of Jerusalem






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    The 12 th Century


    1100 - Henry I, youngest son of William the Conqueror, King of England (to 1135), following assassination of William Rufus.

    1106 - Henry I defeats his brother Rober, Duke of Normandy, at battle of Tinchebrai: Robert remains captive for life.

    1118 - Hugues de Payens founds the order of Knights of Templars.

    1120 - William, heir of Henry I of England, is drowned in wreck of the "White Ship".

    1129 - Empress Matilda, widow of Henry V, marries Geoffrey the Handsome, Count of Anjou, nicknamed " Plantagenet ".

    1139 - Matilda lands in England.

    1141 - Matilda captures Stephen at the battle of Lincoln, and reigns disastrously as queen; she is driven out by a popular rising and Stephen restored.

    1148 - Matilda leaves England for the last time.

    1153 - Henry of Anjou, son of Matilda, invades England and forces Stephen to make him heir to the English throne.

    1154 - Henry II, King of England (to 1189); he also rules more than half of France; Pope Adrian IV (to 1159) (Nicholas Breakspear, the only English pope).

    1155 - Henry II appoints the Archdeacon of Canterbury, Thomas a Becket, as Chancellor.

    1162 - Becket is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and at once quarrels with Henry II over the Church's rights.

    1164 - Constitutions of Clarendon; restatement of laws governing trial of ecclesiastics in England; Becket is forced to flee to France.

    1170 - Becket is reconciled with Henry II, returns to Canterbury; is murdered by four knights after Henry's hasty words against him.

    1173 - Rebellion of Henry's eldest sons, Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey, supported by their mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine; Thomas a Becket canonized .

    1189 - Richard I, Coeur de Lion, eldest surviving son of Henry II, King of England (to 1199).

    1191 - Richard I conquers Cyprus and captures the city of Acre.

    1192 - Richard I captures Jaffa, makes peace with Saladin; on the way home he is captured by his enemy, Duke Leopold of Austria.

    1193 - Leopold hands Richard over to Emperor Henry VI, who demands ransom.

    1194 - Richard is ransomed and returned to England.

    1199 - John Lackland,youngest son of Henry II, King of England (to 1216).






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    The 13 th Century


    1203 - John of England orders the murder of his nephew Arthur, Duke of Brittany.

    1207 - Pope Innocent III appoints Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury (Langton is the man who divided the books of the Bible into chapters); John refuses to let him take office.

    1208 - Innocent III lays England under interdict.

    1209 - Cambridge University is founded in England; Innocent III excommunicates John for attacks on Church property.

    1213 - Innocent III declares John deposed; John resigns his kingship to the pope and receives it back as a holding from the Roman legate, thereby ending the interdict..

    1215 - Signing of Magna Carta; English barons force John to agree to a statement of their rights.

    1216 - Henry III becomes king of England at age nine (to 1272).

    1227 - Henry III begins personal rule in England.

    1256 - Prince Llewellynsweeps English from Wales.

    1264 - Simon de Montfort and other English barons defeat Henry III at battle of Lewes.

    1265 - De Montfort's Parliament: burgesses from major towns summoned to Parliament for the first time; Henry III's son Edward defeats and kills Simon de Montfort at battle of Evesham .

    1269 - Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey begun by Henry III. .

    1272 - Edward I, King of England(to 1307).

    1283 - Edward I defeats and kills Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, and executes Llewellyn's brother David; conquest of Wales complete.

    1290 - Edward I expells all Jews from England.

    1295 - Model Parliament of Edward I : knights and burgesses from English shires and towns summoned. First representative parliament.

    1296–1328-----The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.The First War began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. The Second War (1332–1357) began with the English supported invasion of Edward Balliol and the 'Disinherited' in 1332, and ended around 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick.






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    The 14 th Century


    1301 - Edward I of England invests his baby son Edward as Prince of Wales.

    1305 - The English capture and execute William Wallace.

    1306 - New Scottish rebellion against English rule led by Robert Bruce. Robert I, the Bruce crowned King of Scotland (to 1329) at Scone .

    1307 - Edward I dies on march north to crush Robert Bruce. Edward II, King of England (to 1327).

    1312 - Order of Knights Templar abolished.

    1314 - Battle of Bannockburn: Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent.

    1326 - Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer sail from France with an army to rebel against Edward II of England.

    1327 - Parliament declares Edward II deposed, and his son accedes to the throne as Edward III. Edward II is hideously murdered, nine months later.

    1333 - Edward III invades Scotland on Balliol's behalf and defeats the Scots at battle of Halidon Hill.
    1337...1453--- The Hundred Years' War is the name modern historians have given to what was actually a series of related conflicts, fought over a 116-year period, between England and France, and later Burgundy; beginning in 1337, and ending in 1453. Historians group these conflicts under the same label, for convenience.

    1346 - Edward III of England invades France with a large army and defeats an even bigger army under Philip VI at the Battle of Crécy.

    1347–1351----The Black Death The Black Death was a devastating pandemic that first struck Europe in the mid-14th century killing up to a third of Europe's population, an estimated thirty four million people.

    1356 - Edward the Black Prince son of Edward III, defeats the French at the battle of Poitiers, capturing King John II

    1376 - The Good Parliament in England, called by Edward the Black Prince, introduces many reforms of government; Death of Edward the Black Prince, aged 45; The Civil Dominion of John Wyclif, an Oxford don, calling for Church reforms

    1377 - Richard II, son of the Black Prince, King of England (to 1399).

    1381 - Peasants' Revolt in England; John Wyclif, an Oxford theologian, publishes his "Confession", denying that the "substance" of bread and wine are miraculously changed during the Eucharist. .

    1387 - Geoffrey Chaucer begins work on The Canterbury Tales.

    1389 - Richard II, aged 22, assumes power.

    1394 - Richard II leads expedition to subdue Ireland; returns to England 1395.

    1399 - Death of John of Gaunt; Gaunt's eldest son, Henry of Bolingbroke, lands in Yorkshire with 40 followers, and soon has 60,000 supporters: Richard II is deposed; Bolingbroke becomes Henry IV, King of England (to 1413).






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    The 15 th Century


    1400 - Richard II murdered at Pontefract Castle; Owen Glendower proclaims himself Prince of Wales and begins rebellion.

    1402 - Henry IV enters Wales in pursuit of Glendower.

    1403 - Battle of Shrewsbury; rebellion by the Percy family: Henry IV defeats and kills Harry "Hotspur" Percy

    1406 - Henry, Prince of Wales, defeats Welsh.r

    1413 - Henry V, King of England (to 1422).
    1415 -- Battle of Agincourt. was fought on 25 October in northern France as part of the hundred Years War. The English army led by King Henry V defeated the French army of King Charles VI.

    1416 - Death of Owen Glendower.

    1422 - Deaths of Henry V of England and Charles VI of France; Henry VI, King of England (to 1461)

    1428 - Henry VI begins siege of Orleans.

    1429 - A French force, led by military commander Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc), relieves the siege of Orleans; Charles VII crowned king of France at Rheims

    1431 - Jeanne d'Arc burned as a witch at Rouen; Henry VI of England crowned king of France in Paris.

    1453 - Bordeaux falls to the French, Hundred Years' War ends; England's only French possession is Calais; In England, Henry VI becomes insane .

    1455 - 1485 War of the Roses. Civil wars in England between royal houses of York and Lancaster.

    1460 - Battle of Wakefield. Richard of York is defeated and killed; Earl of Warwick (the Kingmaker) captures London for the Yorkists; Battle of Northampton: Henry VI is captured by Yorkists.

    1461 - Battles of Mortimer's Cross and Towton: Richard's son, Edward of York, defeats Lancastrians and becomes king; Edward IV, King of England (to 1483) .

    1466 - Warwick's quarrels with Edward IV begin; forms alliance with Louis XI.

    1470 - Warwick turns Lancastrian: he defeats Edward IV and restores Henry VI.

    1471 - Battle of Barnet. Edward IV defeats and kills Warwick; Henry VI dies, probably murdered in the Tower of London.

    1476 - William Caxton sets up printing press at Westminster

    1483 - Death of Edward IV; Edward V, King of England; he is deposed by his uncle, Richard Duke of Gloucester; Richard III, King of England (to 1485); Edward V and his brother are murdered in the Tower of London.

    1485 -- The Battle of Bosworth or Bosworth Field. Part of the Wars of the Roses the battle was fought on 22 August between the Yorkist King Richard III, the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, and the Lancastrian contender for the crown, Henry Tudor, 2nd Earl of Richmond (later King Henry VII). It ended in the defeat and death of Richard III.

    1486 - Henry VII (Tudor) married Elizabeth of York uniting houses of York and Lancaster.

    1487 - Battle of Stoke Field: In final engagement of the Wars of the Roses, Henry VII, defeats Yorkist army "led" by Lambert Simnel (who was impersonating Edward, the nephew of Edward IV, the only plausible royal alternative to Henry, who was confined in the Tower of London).r.

    1496 - Henry VII joins the Holy League; commercial treaty between England and Netherlands..

    1497 - John Cabot discovers Newfoundland






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    The 16 th Century


    1509 - Henry VIII, becomes king.

    1513 - Battle of Flodden Field (fought at Flodden Edge, Northumberland) in which invading Scots are defeated by the English under their commander, 70 year old Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey; James IV of Scotland is killed.

    1515 - Thomas Wolsey, Archbisop of York, is made Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal

    1517 - The Protestant Reformation begins; Martin Luther nails his "95 Theses" against the Catholic practice of selling indulgences, on the church door at Wittenberg.

    1521 - Henry VIII receives the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope Leo X for his opposition to Luther.

    1529 - Henry VIII dismisses Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey for failing to obtain the Pope's consent to his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; Sir Thomas More appointed Lord Chancellor; Henry VIII summons the "Reformation Parliament" and begins to cut the ties with the Church of Rome

    1530 - Thomas Wolsey dies.

    1532 - Sir Thomas More resigns over the question of Henry VIII's divorce.

    1533 - Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by Pope Clement VII; Thomas Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.

    1534 - Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII declared supreme head of the Church of England

    1535 - Sir Thomas More is beheaded in Tower of London for failing to take the Oath of Supremacy.

    1536 - Anne Boleyn is beheaded; Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour; dissolution of monasteries in England begins under the direction of Thomas Cromwell, completed in 1539..

    1537 - Jane Seymour dies after the birth of a son, the future Edward VI.

    1539 - Dissolution of Glastonbury Abbey; buildings torched and looted by king's men; Abbot Richard Whiting is executed by hanging atop Glastonbury Tor..

    1540 - Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves following negotiations by Thomas Cromwell; Henry divorces Anne of Cleves and marries Catherine Howard; Thomas Cromwell executed on charge of treason.

    1542 - Catherine Howard is executed.

    1543 - Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr; alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) against Scotland and France.

    1544 - Henry VIII and Charles Vinvade France.

    1547 - Edward VI, King of England: Duke of Somerset acts as Protector.

    1549 - Introduction of uniform Protestant service in England based on Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer.

    1553 - On death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey proclaimed queen of England by Duke of Northumberland, her reign lasts nine days; Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England (to 1558); Restoration of Roman Catholic bishops in England.

    1554 - Execution of Lady Jane Grey.

    1555 - England returns to Roman Catholicism: Protestants are persecuted and about 300, including Cranmer, are burned at the stake .

    1558 - Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, becomes Queen; Repeal of Catholic legislation in England

    1560 - Treaty of Berwick between Elizabeth I and Scottish reformers; Treaty of Edinburgh among England, France, and Scotland.

    1567 - Murder of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, probably by Earl of Bothwell; Mary Queen of Scots marries Bothwell, is imprisoned, and forced to abdicate; James VI, King of Scotland.

    1568 - Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England and is imprisoned by Elizabeth I at Fotheringay Castle .

    1577 - 1580. Francis Drake sails around the world.

    1584 - William of Orange is murdered and England sends aid to the Netherlands; 1586 Expedition of Sir Francis Drake to the West Indies; Conspiracy against Elizabeth I involving Mary Queen of Scots.

    1587 - Execution of Mary Queen of Scots; England at war with Spain; Drake destroys Spanish fleet at Cadiz

    1588 -- Spanish Armada. Sent by the Catholic King Philip II of Spain in 1588 in a failed attempt to bring an end to his war with England. The Spanish fleet was scattered by an English fire ship attack in the Battle of Gravelines, and then battered by storms,it was driven back to Spain.

    1597 - Irish rebellion under Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone (finally put down 1601)






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    The 17 th Century


    1600 - Elizabeth I grants charterto East India Company.

    1601 - Elizabethan Poor Law charges the parishes with providing for the needy; Essex attempts rebellion, and is executed.

    1603 - Elizabeth dies; James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.

    1605---The Gunpowder Plot of November 5th was a desperate but failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in one attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening.

    1607 - Parliament rejects proposals for union between England and Scotland; colony of Virginia is founded at Jamestown by John Smith; Henry Hudson begins voyage to eastern Greenland and Hudson River.

    1610 - Hudson Bay discovered.

    1611 - James I's authorized version (King James Version) of the Bible is completed; English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster.

    1618 - Thirty Years' War begins, lasts until 1648.

    1620 - Pilgrim fathers in the "Mayflower"; land at Plymouth Rock on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, found New Plymouth.

    1622 - James I dissolves Parliament for asserting its right to debate foreign affairs.

    1624 - Alliance between James I and France; Parliament votes for war against Spain; Virginia becomes crown colony.

    1625 - Charles I, King of England (to 1649); Charles I marries Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France; dissolves Parliament which fails to vote him money

    1628 - Petition of Right; Charles I forced to accept Parliament's statement of civil rights in return for finances.

    1629 - Charles I dissolves Parliament and rules personally until 1640.

    1639 - First Bishops' War between Charles I and the Scottish Church; ends with Pacification of Dunse.

    1640 - Charles I summons the "Short " Parliament ; dissolved for refusal to grant money; Second Bishops' War; ends with Treaty of Ripon; The Long Parliament begins.

    1641 - Catholics in Ireland revolt; some 30,000 Protestants massacred.

    1642 - Charles I fails in attempt to arrest five members of Parliament and rejects Parliament's Nineteen Propositions; Civil War (until 1645) begins with battle of Edgehill between Cavaliers (Royalists) and Roundheads (Parliamentarians)

    1644 - Battle of Marston Moor; Oliver Cromwell defeats Prince Rupert

    1645 - Formation of Cromwell's New Model Army; Battle of Naseby; Charles I defeated by Parliamentary forces

    1648 - Scots invade England and are defeated by Cromwell at battle of Preston Pride's Purge: Presbyterians expelled from Parliament (known as the Rump Parliament); Treaty of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War

    1649 - Charles I is tried and executed; The Commonwealth, in which ; England is governed as a republic, is established and lasts until 1660; Cromwell harshly suppresses Catholic rebellions in Ireland

    1650 - Charles II lands in Scotland; is proclaimed king.

    1651 - Charles II invades England and is defeated at Battle of Worcester; Charles escapes to France; First Navigation Act, England gains virtual monopoly of foreign trade.

    1653 - Oliver Cromwell dissolves the "Rump" and becomes Lord Protector .

    1655 - England divided into 12 military districts by Cromwell;seizes Jamaica from Spain .

    1656 - War with Spain (until 1659).

    1658 - Oliver Cromwell dies; succeeded as Lord Protector by son Richard; Battle of the Dunes, England and France defeat Spain; England gains Dunkirk.

    1659 - Richard Cromwellforced to resign by the army; "Rump" Parliament restored.

    1660 - Convention Parliament restores Charles II to throne.

    1661 - Clarendon Code; "Cavalier" Parliament of Charles II passes series of repressive laws against Nonconformists; English acquire Bombay.

    1662 - Act of Uniformity passed in England.

    (AD 1665-1666)--- The Great Plague was a massive outbreak of disease in England that killed 75,000 to 100,000 people, up to a fifth of London's population. The disease is generally believed to have been bubonic plague.

    1666---The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the City of London from September 2 to September 5 and resulted more or less in the destruction of the city.

    1667 - Dutch fleet defeats the English in Medway river; treaties of Breda among Netherlands, England, France, and Denmark.

    1670 - Secret Treaty of Dover between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France to restore Roman Catholicism to England; Hudson's Bay Company founded.

    1672 - Third Anglo-Dutch war (until 1674); William III (of Orange) becomes ruler of Netherlands.

    1673 - Test Act aims to deprive English Roman Catholics and Nonconformists of public office.

    1677 - William III, ruler of the Netherlands, marries Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York, heir to the English throne.

    1678 - 'Popish Plot' in England; Titus Oates falsely alleges a Catholic plot to murder Charles II.

    1679 - Act of Habeas Corpus passed, forbidding imprisonment without trial; Parliament's Bill of Exclusion against the Roman Catholic Duke of York blocked by Charles II; Parliament dismissed; Charles II rejects petitions calling for a new Parliament; petitioners become known as Whigs; their opponents (royalists) known as Tories

    1681 - Whigs reintroduce Exclusion Bill; Charles II dissolves Parliament.

    1685 - James II of England and VII of Scotland (to 1688); rebellion by Charles II's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth, against James II is put down.

    1686 - James II disregards Test Act; Roman Catholics appointed to public office.

    1687 - James II issues Declaration of Liberty of Conscience,extends toleration to all religions.

    1688 - England's 'Glorious Revolution'; William III of Orange is invited to save England from Roman Catholicism, lands in England, James II flees to France.

    1689 - Convention Parliament issues Bill of Rights; establishes a constitutional monarchy in Britain; bars Roman Catholics from the throne; William III and Mary II become joint monarchs of England and Scotland (to1694), Toleration Act grants freedom of worship to dissenters in England; Grand Alliance of the League of Augsburg, England, and the Netherlands.

    1690 - King William defeats the Irish and French armies of his father-in-law at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland

    1691 - The Treaty of Limerick allows Cathloics in Ireland to exercise their religion freely, but severe penal laws soon follow. The French War begins.

    1692 - The Glencoe Massacre occurs.

    1694 - Death of Queen Mary; King William now rules alone. Foundation of the Bank of England. Triennial Act sets the maximum duration of a parliament to three years

    1695 - Lapse of the Licensing Act.

    1697 - Peace of Ryswick between the allied powers of the League of Augsburg and France ends the French War. Civil List Act votes funds for the maintenance of the Royal Household.






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    The 18 th Century


    1701 - The Act of Settlement settles the Royal Succession on the Protestant descendants of Sophia of Hanover. Death of the former King James II in exile in France. The French king recognizes James II's son as "King James III". King William forms a grand alliance between England, Holland and Austria to prevent the union of the Spanish and French crowns. The War of the Spanish Succession breaks out in Europe over the vacant throne.

    1702 - Death of King William III in a riding accident. He is succeeded by his sister-in-law, Queen Anne. England declares war on France as part of the War of the Spanish Succession t

    1704 - British, Dutch, German and Austrian troops, under the Duke of Marlborough, defeat the French and Bavarians at the Battle of Blenheim. The British capture Gibraltar from Spain

    1707 - The Act of Union unites the kingdoms of England and Scotland and transfers the seat of Scottish Government to London

    1708 - The Duke of Marlborough defeats the French at the Battle of Oudenarede. The French incur heavy losses. Queen Anne vetoes a parliamentary bill to recognise the Scottish militia. This is the last time a bill is vetoed by the sovereign.

    1709 - Marlborough defeats the French at the Battle of Malplaquet.

    1710 - A Tory ministry is formed, under Harley, with the impeachment of Dr. Sacheverell and the fall of the Whig government.

    1713 - The Treaty of Utrecht is signed by Britain and France, thus concluding the War of the Spanish Succession.

    1714 - Death of Queen Anne at Kensington Palace. She is succeeded by her distant cousin, the Elector George of Hanover, as King George I. A new parliament is elected with a strong Whig majority, led by Charles Townshend and Robert Walpole.

    1715 - The Jacobite Rebellion begins in Scotland with the aim of overthrowing the Hanovarian succession and placing the "Old Pretender" - James II's son - on the throne. The rebellion is easily defeated.

    1716 - The Septennial Act sets General Elections to be held every seven years.

    1717 - Townshend is dismissed from government by George I, causing Walpole to resign. The Whig party is split.Convocation is suspended.

    1719 - South Sea Bubble bursts, leaving many investors ruined after speculating with stock of the 'South Sea Company.

    1721 - Sir Robert Walpole returns to government as First Lord of the Treasury. He remains in office until 1742 and effectively becomes Britain's first Prime Minister.

    1722 - Death of the Duke of Marlborough.

    1726 - First circulating library in Britain opens in Edinburgh. Jonathan Swift publishes his 'Gulliver's Travels'.

    1727 - Death of great British scientist, Sir Isaac Newton and of King George I (in Hanover). The latter is succeeded by his son as King George II.

    1737 - Death of King George II's wife, Queen Caroline.

    1738 - John and Charles Wesley start the Methodist movement in Britain

    1739 - Britain goes to war with Spain in the 'War of Jenkins' Ear'. The cause: Captain Jenkins' ear was claimed to have been cut off during a Naval Skirmish

    1742 - Walpole resigns as Prime Minister.

    1745 - Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland led by 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'. There is a Scottish victory at Prestonpans

    1746 - The Duke of Cumberland crushes the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden.

    1751 - Death of Frederick, Prince of Wales. His son, Prince George, becomes heir to the throne.

    1752 - Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in Britain.

    1753 - Parliament passes the Jewish Naturalization Bill.

    1756 - Britain, allied with Prussia, declares war against France and her allies, Austria and Russia. The Seven Years' War begins.

    1757 - The Pitt-Newcastle ministry. Robert Clive wins the Battle of Plassey and secures the Indian province of Bengal for Britain. William Pitt becomes Prime Minister.

    1759 - Wolfe captures Quebec and expels the French from Canada.

    1760 - Death of King George II. He is succeeded by his grandson as George IIIr.

    1762 - The Earl of Bute is appointed Prime Minister. He becomes very unpopular and employs a bodyguard.

    1763 - Peace of Paris ends the Seven Years' War. Grenville ministry.

    1765 - Rockingham ministry. The American Stamp Act raises taxes in the colonies in an attempt to make their defence self-financing.

    1769 - James Watt patentsthe Steam Engine.

    1769-70 - Captain James Cook's first voyage to explore the Pacific.

    1771 - The Encyclopedia Britannica is first published.

    1773 - American colonists protest at the East India Company's monopoly over tea exports to the colonies, at the so-called 'Boston Tea Party'. The World's first cast-iron bridge is constructed over the River Severn at Coalbrookdale

    1775 - American War of Independence begins when colonists fight British troops at Lexington. James Watt further develops his steam engine

    1776 - On 4th July, the American Congress passes their Declaration of Independence from Britain.

    1780 - The Gordon Riots develop from a procession to petition parliament against the Catholic Relief Act.

    1781 - The Americans obtain a great victory of British troops at the surrender of Yorktown.

    1783 - Shelburne's ministry, followed by that of William Pitt the Younger. Britain recognises American independence at the Peace of Versailles. Fox-North coalition established.

    1784 - Parliament passes the East India Act.

    1788 - George III suffers his first attack of 'madness' (caused by porphyria).

    1789 - Outbreak of the French Revolution

    1792 - Coal gas is used for lighting for the first time. Mary Wollstonecraft publishes her 'Vindication of the Rights of Women'.

    1793 - Outbreak of War between Britain and France. The voluntary Board of Agriculture is set up.

    1795 - The 'Speenhamland' system of outdoor relief is adopted, making wages up to equal the cost of subsistence.

    1796 - Vaccination against smallpox is introduced.

    1798 - Introduction of a tax of ten percent on incomes over £200. T.R. Malthus publishes his 'Essay on Population'.

    1798 - Introduction of a tax of ten percent on incomes over £200. T.R. Malthus publishes his 'Essay on Population'

    1799 - Trade Unions are suppressed. Napoleon is appointed First Consul in France

    1799-1801 - Commercial boom in Britain.






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    The 19 th Century


    1800 - Act of Union with Ireland unites Parliaments of England and Ireland.

    1801 - Close of Pitt the Younger's Ministry. The first British Census is undertaken.

    1803 - Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars. Britain declares war on France. Parliament passes the General Enclosure Act, simplifying the process of enclosing common land.

    1805----Battle of Trafalgar fought on 21 October was part of the Napoleonic Wars and the pivotal naval battle of the 19th century. The british fleet of 27 ships commanded by Lord Nelson destroyed an allied French and Spanish fleet of 33 ships. Admiral Lord Nelson died late in the battle.

    1812 - Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated in the House of Commons by a disgruntled bankrupt.

    1818 - Death of the King's wife, Queen Caroline. Mary Shelley's publishes her 'Frankenstein'.

    1821-23 - Famine in Ireland.

    1825 - Nash reconstructs Buckingham Palace. The World's first railway service, the Stockton and Darlington Railway opens. Trade Unions are legalized. Commercial depression in Britain.

    1829 - The Metropolitan Police Force is set up by Robert Peel. Parliament passes the Catholic Relief Act, ending most restrictions on Catholic Civil Rights. They are allowed to own property and run for public office, including parliament

    1830 - Death of King George IV at Windsor. He is succeeded by his brother, William IV. Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Rise of the Whigs, under Grey.

    1831 - 'Swing' Riots in rural areas against the mechanization of agricultural activities. The new London Bridge is opened over the River Thames.

    1832 - The first or great Reform Act is passed. This climax of a period of political reform extends the vote to a further 500,000 people and redistributes Parliamentary seats on a more equitable basis.

    1833 - Abolition of Slavery throughout the British Empire. Parliament passes the Factory Act, prohibiting children aged less than nine from working in factories, and reducing the working hours of women and older children.

    1834 - Parliament passes the Poor Law Act, establishing workhouses for the poor. Robert Owen founds the Grand National Consolidated Trade Union. The government acts against 'illegal oaths' in such unionism, rsulting in the Tolpuddle Martyrs being transported to Australia. Fire destroys the Palace of Westminster.

    1835 - Parliament passes the Municipal Reform Act, requiring members of town councils to be elected by ratepayers and councils to publish their financial accounts.

    1837 - Death of King William IV at Windsor. He is succeeded by his niece, Victoria. Births, deaths and marriages must be registered by law. Charles Dickens publishes 'Oliver Twist,' drawing attention to Britain's poor.

    1840 - Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The penny post is instituted.

    1841 - The first British Census recording the names of the populace is undertaken. The Tories come to power. Sir Robert Peel becomes Prime Minister.

    1844 - Parliament passes the Bank Charter Act. Foundation of the Rochdale Co-Operative Society and the Royal Commission on the Health of Towns.

    1844-45 - Railways mania explodes across Britain. Massive investment and speculation leads to the laying of 5,000 miles of track.

    1845-49 - Irish Potato Famine kills more than a million people.

    1848 - Major Chartist demonstration in London. Revolutions in Europe. Parliament passes the Public Health Act.

    1851 - The Great Exhibition is staged in Hyde Park. Thanks to Prince Albert, it is a great success.

    1852 - Death of the Duke of Wellington. Derby's first minority Conservative government. Aberdeen's coalition government is established.

    1853 - Vaccination against smallpox is made compulsory. Queen Victoria uses chloroform during birth of Prince Leopold. Gladstone presents his first budget

    1789 - Outbreak of the French Revolution

    1789 - Outbreak of the French Revolution

    1854 - The Northcote-Trevelyan civil service report is published The Crimean War begins, as Britain and France attempt to defend European interests in the Middle East against Russia.

    1856 - Crimean War comes to an end. The Victoria Cross is instituted for military bravery.

    1857-58 - The Second Opium War opens China to European trade. /bThe Indian Mutiny erupts against British Rule on the sub-continent.

    1859 - Palmerston brings his second Liberal government to power. Charles Darwin publishes his 'The Origin of the Species'.

    1861 - Death of Prince Albert, Prince Consort.

    1862 - Parliament passes the Limited Liability Act in order to provide vital stimulus to accumulation of capital in shares.

    1863 - Edward, Prince of Wales, marries Princess Alexandra of Denmark. The Salvation Army is founded.

    1867 - Derby and Disraeli's Second Reform Bill doubles the franchise to two million. Canada becomes the first independent dominion in the British Empire under the Dominion of Canada Act.

    1868 - Disraeli succeeds Derby as Prime Minister. Gladstone becomes Prime Minister for the first time.

    1869 - The Irish Church is disestablished. The Suez Canal is opened.

    1870 - Primary education becomes compulsory in Britain through the Forster-Ripon English Elementary Education Act. Parliament also passes the Women's Property Act, extending the rights of married women, and the Irish Land Act.

    1871 - Trade Unions are legalized.

    1872 - Secret voting is introduced for elections. Parliament passes the Scottish Education Act.

    1875 - Disraeli purchases a controlling interest for Britain in the Suez Canal. Agricultural depression increases.

    1876 - Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India. The massacre of Christians in Turkish Bulgaria leads to anti-Turkish campaigns in Britain, led by Gladstone.

    1877 - Confederation of British and Boer states established in South Africa.

    1879 - A trade depression emerges in Britain. The Zulu War is fought in South Africa. The British are defeated at Isandhlwana, but are victorious at Ulundi.

    1880-81 - The first Anglo-Boer War is fought.

    1881 - Parliament passes the Irish Land and Coercion Acts.

    1882 - Britain occupies Egypt. A triple alliance is established between Germany, Austria and Italy.

    1885 - Death of General Gordon at Khartoum. Burma is annexed. Salisbury succeeds Gladstone with his first minority Conservative government. Parliament passes the Redistribution Act.

    1887 - Queen Victoria celebrates her Golden Jubilee. The Independent Labour Party is founded. The British East Africa Company is chartered.

    1889 - London Dockers' Strike. The British South Africa Company is chartered.

    1893 - Second Irish Home Rule Bill fails to pass the House of Lords.

    1896 - The British conquest of the Sudan begins.

    1897 - Queen Victoria celebrates her Diamond Jubilee.

    1898 - British rule over Sudan fully established. German Naval expansion begins.

    1899-1902 - Boer War in South Africa.